The flow of promises in magazines, newspapers, television together with the creation of new start-ups and new business observed over the last years deserves to be examined in an historical perspective. The precedents in artificial intelligence have blown hot and cold over the last century and so it is important to address pros and cons. Neurons and intelligence(s), what exactly are we talking about? Are they really inspired by biological mechanisms? Will these famous deep learning techniques with the big data change the world? What are they capable of doing? An increase of pattern recognition performance of a few percent? In the picture of the future, how to decide between simplicity vs complexity, data vs knowledge?
Past-director of LTSI (Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et de l’Image, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1), Jean Louis Coatrieux received numerous awards among which the IEEE Carreer Achievement Award, the IEEE Millenium Award, the Friendship award from China. He is currently member of the One thousand talents program as professor at SouthEast University and Emeritus Research Director at Inserm (National Institute for Health and Medical Research).